The Pledge was the origin of the “Nazi” salute. The stiff-armed salute is more accurately called the “American salute” as it originated in the Pledge of Allegiance to the USA’s flag. The pledge was written (1892) by Francis Bellamy. Francis Bellamy was cousin and cohort of Edward Bellamy and they were both socialists in the nationalism movement long before Adolf Hitler’s National Socialist German Workers Party and before Mussolini became a well-known socialist. The Bellamys and socialist schools (government schools) in the USA influenced the National Socialist German Workers Party, its dogma, symbols and rituals (e.g. robotic chanting to flags in unison with stylized arm gestures). Of course, that still happens in the USA’s government schools, though the gesture has changed. See the work of Dr. Rex Curry (author of “Pledge of Allegiance Secrets”).